South Africa is the southernmost country on the African continent. It has a long history of conflict and human rights issues, but it has always been one of the most economically prosperous nations in southern Africa due to its coastal location and the presence of gold, diamonds, and natural resources. By the 14th century CE, the region was settled by the Bantu people who migrated from central Africa.
However, permanent settlement didn't occur until when the Dutch East India Company established a small station for provisions on the Cape. In the following years, French, Dutch, and German settlers began to arrive in the region.
By the late s, European settlements were spread throughout the Cape and by the end of the 18th century, the British controlled the entire Cape of Good Hope region. In the early s, in an effort to escape British rule, many native farmers called Boers migrated north, and in andthe Boers created the independent Republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
After the discovery of diamonds and gold in the late s, more European immigrants arrived in South Africa and this eventually led to the Anglo-Boer Warswhich the British won, causing the republics to become part of the British Empire. Despite the ANC in an election inthe National Party won and began passing laws enforcing a policy of racial separation called apartheid.
In the early s, the ANC was banned and Nelson Mandela and other anti-apartheid leaders were convicted of treason and imprisoned.
InSouth Africa became a republic after it withdrew from the British Commonwealth because of international protests against apartheid and in a constitution was put into effect.
In FebruaryPresident F. Four years later on May 10,Mandela was elected as South Africa 's first Black president and during his time in office he was committed to reforming race-relations in the country and strengthening its economy and place in the world.
This has remained the goal of subsequent governmental leaders. Today, South Africa is a republic with two legislative bodies. Its executive branch is its Chief of State and Head of Government—both of which are filled by the president, who is elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly. The legislative branch is a bicameral Parliament composed of the National Council of the Provinces and the National Assembly.
South Africa has a growing market economy with a plethora of natural resources. Gold, platinum, and precious stones such as diamonds account for nearly half of South Africa's exports. Auto assembly, textiles, iron, steel, chemicals, and commercial ship repair also play a role in the country's economy. In addition, agriculture and agricultural exports are significant to South Africa. South Africa is divided into three major geographic regions.
The first is the African Plateau in the country's interior. It forms a portion of the Kalahari Basin and is semiarid and sparsely populated. It slopes gradually in the north and west but rises to 6, feet 2, meters in the east.
The second region is the Great Escarpment.
9 Most Beautiful Regions in South Africa
Its terrain varies but its highest peaks are in the Drakensberg Mountains along the border with Lesotho. The third region consists of the narrow, fertile valleys along the coastal plains. The climate of South Africa is mostly semiarid, but its eastern coastal regions are subtropical with mainly sunny days and cool nights.
South Africa's west coast is arid because the cold ocean current Benguela removes moisture from the region, which formed the Namib Desert that extends into Namibia. In addition to its varied topography, South Africa is famous for its biodiversity. South Africa currently has eight wildlife reserves, the most famous of which is Kruger National Park along the border with Mozambique.
This park is home to lions, leopards, giraffes, elephants, and hippopotamus. The Cape Floristic Region along South Africa's west coast is also important as it is considered a world biodiversity hotspot which is home to endemic plants, mammals and amphibians. Share Flipboard Email.Some of the criteria may divide the continent into four by doing away with Central Africa or they may include the Horn of Africa as its own region and end up with six subdivisions.
The divisions are made based on certain criteria. Some divisions are based on the general direction of the four cardinal points, based on physiographic features, and a few other criteria. Southern Africa, as the name suggests, is the southernmost part of Africa and includes a number of countries aside from the country of South Africa. Another argument is for the inclusion of Angola in Central Africa.
Most of the time, in the nation of South Africa, a different geographic definition is used to represent the region of Southern Africa. This delineation views Southern Africa as the region of Africa that is situated to the south of the River Zambezi and Cunene. This description is mainly used for some educational purposes and not in any official usage since it divides Mozambique into two.
Obviously, the situation is not the same in all the countries. For example, the political instability and poor leadership in the Democratic Republic of Congo have seen to it that the fertile soils and favorable climatic conditions are not fully utilized for farming activities. This situation is laughable compared to countries that do not have favorable climatic conditions such as Namibia. While such countries produce less food than is required for sustaining the country, they are able to supplement their reserves through imports because of favorable political situations, economic growth, and competent leadership.
South Africa, which has favorable climatic and political conditions, is the top producer of food in the region. In fact, South Africa produces enough food for exportation.Fali Sam Nariman
An emerging area of concern in the region is urban food security. Recent data shows that low-income households living in urban areas are having problems getting food. Urban food security has proven to be a difficult thing to study. However, the studies that have been done have been able to show that factors that come into play include climate changes which may affect agricultural productivitypoverty, unemployment, and a few other factors.
The consumption of foods that have high calories and generally unhealthy is also a sign of food insecurity in the urban areas. Consequently, people eating these foods end up with problems such as malnutrition, obesity, and hypertension.
An interesting case is South Africa. When it comes to the economy, the region is decidedly different from other parts of Africa. The main exports include diamonds, platinum, gold, and uranium. At the same time, it has similar challenges that other regions face.
To fight these problems in order to advance the region economically, the nations have come together to establish international bodies that further that agenda such as the SADC. Individually, South Africa is, unsurprisingly, the strongest economy among all the countries.
Home to many cultures, the region was initially occupied by native African tribes like the San, Pygmies, and Khoikhoi. Eventually, the Bantu expansion came and had some influence on the native tribes.
Due to the Bantus, several ethnic groups such as the Zulu, Swazi, Northern Ndebele, the Shona people, Southern Ndebele, and other groups ended up speaking Bantu languages. Further changes were made after the colonials arrived in Africa.The southernmost country on the African continent, South Africa stretches between two great oceans: the Atlantic to the west, and the Indian to the east.
Around five times the size of the UK, this large country is of course famous for the chance to go on safari: savannah and wetlands accommodate giraffes, rhinos, hippos and elephants, to name a few big game animals. There are the vast plateaus of the Highveld, the ridge that is the Great Escarpment, heathlands of the west, flat-topped hills of the Karoo landscape, beaches popular with surfers, vast deserts, and even temperate rainforests in the Garden Route.
Ecosystems abound in this African nation. Set in the most southwesterly corner of South Africa is the province of Western Cape. Though you can catch a cable car to the top, you can always hike to its 1,m summit instead. The famous and suitably named Garden Route, a rightly popular kilometre east-west roadtrip. Between the Outeniqua Mountains and the Southern Indian Ocean, there are swathes of Afromontane Forest, a type of temperate rainforest.Media briefing on COVID-19
The coast itself is about its beaches and surfing. To the east of Western Cape, of course, is Eastern Cape. With a diverse landscape, this province also features a good portion of the Garden Route — home to more temperate rainforest — north of which is the dry, semi-arid, Karoo region; the rugged coast is interspersed with beaches. Here is where you will find Addo National Park, with populations of elephants as well as Cape buffalo and black rhino.
This is a coastal nature reserve that encompasses the soaring and famous yellow redwood named the Big Tree. Tsitsikamma is a renowned spot for whale watching, too. Port Elizabeth, another coastal town, has a bit of everything: a multitude of beaches, charming Victorian-era heritage areas — such as the Old Hill — and big game reserves on its doorstep.
Northern Cape is the largest province of South Africa. Larger than Germany, for example, there are seemingly unending distances between its major towns.Carole james constituency office victoria
Whilst there are shores on the South Atlantic coast, it also shares long borders with Namibia and Botswana. A sprawling portion of this region is taken up by the area of Namaqualand. This is the largest district in the whole country and is known for its stunning nature, particularly its wild flowers in the springtime.
The banks of the Orange River here are popular for hiking and soaking up the Namakwa daisies and the surrounding natural landscape in the Namaqua National Park. Part of the Kalahari Desert also slices into this region. With its red sand dunes and acacia trees, this is a stark and unforgiving but beautiful place to experience.
The Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park found here is a vast area of dry rivers and dunes; come here to see herds of wildebeest as well as black maned Kalahari lions. The primarily Boer province of Free State is all about its agriculture. Bordering Lesotho to the southeast, this area is home to around thirty thousand farms and is, for the most part, set at an elevation of over 1, metres above sea level.
Here there are flat, grassy plains, pasture land, and little in the way of hills. There are however some mountains in the east, with the Drakensberg range as well the Maluti Mountains pushing above 2,m. The golden sandstone cliffs in this area form a natural border with neighbouring Lesotho and is where you will find the Golden Gate Highlands National Park.
Caves, cliffs, rock formations, and rugged hiking trails await the intrepid visitor. Roughly the size of Portugal, it also borders Eswatini Swaziland and Mozambique to the north. The iSimangaliso Wetland Park, for example, is a tropical area comprising numerous coastal habitats, including beaches, coral reefs, dunes and swamp.The island nation of Madagascar is excluded because of its distinct language and cultural heritage.
The interior of Southern Africa consists of a series of undulating plateaus that cover most of South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana and extend into central Angola. Contiguous with this are uplands in Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Coastal mountains and escarpments, flanking the high ground, are found in northern Mozambique, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, and along the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border.
The Kalahari desert forms the central depression of the Southern African plateau. Its elevation rises to the Great Escarpmentwhich flanks the plateau in an almost unbroken line from the Zambezi River to Angola.
Southern Zimbabwe and much of South Africa are within a region of scrublands and grasslands known as the veld. In Namibia the coastal margin includes the extremely dry Namib desert, which, in the south, merges eastward into the great sandy expanse of the Kalahari. The region is generally drained eastward toward the Indian Ocean, a pattern exemplified by the largest rivers, the Zambezi and Limpopo.
The Zambezi is the longest river in the region, and its catchment includes much of Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Southern African climates are seasonal, ranging from arid to semiarid and from temperate to tropical. The seasonality is an important control on plant growth and a regulator of river flows.
Droughts are common in much of the region. Four main types of vegetation are found: savanna woodlands known as miombo forest in the north, a series of dry woodlands to the south of these, arid and semiarid grasslandscrubland, and bushland in the Namib and Kalahari deserts and their environs, and Mediterranean vegetation along the southern coast. The semiarid plains and plateaus that cover much of the region contain animals commonly associated with the East African plains—e.
However, different animals are found in the coastal woodlands of South Africa and in the desert regions to the north and northwest. Many habitats have been extensively modified by agriculture, thus restricting the ranges of certain species that were formerly more widespread. There are some two dozen large national parks and game reserves in the area as well as many smaller ones, most located in the open or partially wooded plains.Teman curhat bahasa inggris
At the beginning of the 21st century, several transfrontier parks were opening, including Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parkthe first transnational park, and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, among the largest parks in the world. Khoisan speakers, who have inhabited the region for millennia, have now been displaced in many areas by Bantu speakers.
People of European ancestry began migrating to the region in the midth century; they now constitute a sizable minority in South Africa and a much smaller population in Zimbabwe.
The history of Southern Africa cannot be written as a single narrative. Shifting geographic and political boundaries and changing historiographical perspectives render this impossible.
Research into local history in the late 20th and early 21st century has presented fragmented historical knowledge, and older generalizations have given way to a complex polyphony of voices as new subfields of history—gender and sexuality, health, and the environmentto name but a few—have developed. Archaeological and historical inquiry has been extremely uneven in the countries of the Southern African subcontinent, with Namibia the least and South Africa the most intensely studied.
This is as true of prehistory as of the more recent past.Nullable datetime
The uncertainties of evidence for the long preliterate past—where a bone or potsherd can undermine previous interpretations and where recent research has subverted even terminology—are matched by conflicting representations of the colonial and postcolonial periods.
In Southern Africa, history is not a set of neutrally observed and agreed-upon facts: present concerns colour interpretations of even the remote past. For all the contestants in contemporary Southern Africa there has been a conscious struggle to control the past in order to legitimate the present and lay claim to the future. Who is telling what history for which Africa is a question that needs constantly to be addressed.
This article covers the history of the region from the prehistoric period to the end of the colonial period in the 20th century.
List of countries by regional classification
For discussion of the physical and human geography of individual countries in the region and of their postcolonial history, see AngolaBotswanaLesothoMalawiMozambiqueNamibiaSouth AfricaSwazilandZambiaand Zimbabwe. Area 2, square miles 5, square km. The controversies in Southern African history begin with the discovery of a fossilized hominin skull in a limestone cave at Taung near the Harts River north of Kimberley infollowed in by discoveries in similar caves in the Transvaal now Limpopo and Gauteng provinces and Northern Cape province, in South Africa.The continent of Africa is commonly divided into five regions or subregionsfour of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa.
One common approach categorizes Africa directionally, e. This approach is taken, for example, in the United Nations geoscheme for Africa and the regions of the African Union. Another common approach divides Africa by using features such as landforms, climatic regions, or vegetation types:. A slightly less common, but equally important method of division of the continent is by investment factors. For the purposes of investing, Africa is not a single destination with a single set of standardized risk factors and homogeneous potential for reward.Tronarse los dedos causa artritis
The investment approach was first developed by global, independent financial analytics provider and investment consultant, RisCura. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. Not to be confused with Regions of the African Union. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Afroasiatic Semitic-Hamitic. Austronesian Malay-Polynesian. Central and Eastern Sudanese. Central Bantoid. Eastern Bantoid. Western Bantoid.
Main article: Languages of Africa. Africa portal. African Business Central. Retrieved Capital Markets in Africa.
Geography and History of South Africa
Archived from the original on Foreign Affairs. States with limited recognition. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland.The vast African Continent is often divided into five major geographic regions. These regions are also known as sub-regions. Each region has its unique climatic and bio-geographic characteristics. The culture and economic activities of the people living in the various sub-regions also vary from one region to the other.
The Southern region of Africa lies in the southernmost part of the continent, as the name implies. It is a region of diverse people and cultures. The altitude also varies from high mountains to coastal regions of low altitude.
South Africa is the most powerful country in the region, both politically and economically. Southern Africa is rich in mineral resources, with the largest deposits of platinum and related elements such as vanadium, cobalt, and chromium in the world.
It also has vast resources of uranium, titanium, gold, diamonds, and iron. One of the most common issues facing the countries in the region is food security, with poor governance and unfavorable climatic conditions being the main reasons behind the challenge.
South Africa is the largest food producer in the region, and a major exporter as well. This sub-region is also known as Eastern Africa, and it occupies the eastern region of the massive African continent. These six states make up the East African Community. The four countries that lie in the Horn of Africa namely, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti, also lie in the region.
Other countries include the island nations of Mauritius, Seychelles, and Comoros, all found in the Indian Ocean and two overseas territories of France which also lie in the Ocean. The climate of the region is largely varied unlike that of other equatorial regions. Mount Kilimanjaro, the tallest peak in Africa as well as Mt. Most of the countries in the region are home to many species of wildlife including mountain gorillas and the "big five". Countries in the Horn of Africa are rich in ancient history.
Tourism and Agriculture are major economic activities in the area. Six African nations make up the Equatorial region. Tropical rainforests are a dominant physical characteristic of the region. It is also the second most voluminous river in the world after Amazon River.
It is the least populated region in Africa. The inhabitants of the equatorial region speak a variety of ethnic languages, and the most practiced religions are Christianity and Islam.
Equatorial Africa is rich in natural resources, with rich mineral deposits and natural rainforests.Auto zatti usato parma
Mineral and timber exports earn the countries a lot of income. Timber logging activities are a big threat to the natural rainforest ecology of the region. Agriculture in the area is mainly subsistence, with farmers practicing either animal herding or crop farming.
In Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon however, farming of export crops like palm oil, coffee, and cocoa takes place in large plantations. The primary issue facing Equatorial African countries is lack of infrastructure, which hinders adequate exploration of the natural resources in the sub-region. West Africa is a vast region on the westerly part of the African continent. As atthe population of West Africa was approximately million people.
There are 18 countries in the region, all occupying a total area of 5, km 2.
Majority of the population in West Africa practice Islam. Low-lying plains mostly constitute the terrain of West Africa. The highest peaks in the region are mostly found in countries found on the southern shores.
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